Damascus is a Syria's capital and second largest city in the country. Damascus is located in southwestern Syria in the subtropical zone, but, despite the fact that the Mediterranean Sea is very close, the climate in this area is very dry and hot. Damascus is widely regarded as one of the oldest cities in the world. The first mention of the Damascus sity belong to 2500 BC The Syrian capital - the largest religious and cultural center of the Levant - the Promised Land.
Name of Damascus was first mentioned in the list of Tuthmosis III in the 15th century BC. At the time, Damascus was ruled by pharaohs. The etymology of the name, by the way, has not yet been determined and it is possible that the word has Jewish roots. Ibn'Asakir medieval Arab historian, said that the first wall, which was built after the flood, was Damascus wall.
At different times, the Damascus sity was part of the Assyrian state, the Kingdom of Israel, Empire Alexander the Great and the Seleucid kingdom. In the first century BC, Damascus was captured by the Nabataeans, and then attached to the Roman Empire. In Damascus, the headquarters of the Roman legionnaires who fought with the Persians. At the end of the 4th century AD the city became part of the Byzantine Empire.
Crusaders tried three times to capture the city, and in the mid-12th century, the city came under the rule of the Ayyubid. In the second half of the 13th century, the power in the Syrian capital, captured the Mamluks of Egypt. The period of their reign was a period of flourishing of craft and art in Damascus. It was at this time in Europe began to export the famous Damascus steel and glass.
In 1300, the Mongols sacked the ancient city of Damascus, and staged a massacre that, according to historians of the time, «the streets flowed the blood of the river.» Just 100 years Tamerlane destroyed the city to the ground, and the best artists of the city led to slavery. In the Ottoman Empire, Damascus was a simple provincial center and was known as a transit point for pilgrims.